With the invention of the triple roller pump by Alfred Beck, it became possible from 1924 to pump blood quickly and directly into the donor.
September, although Blundell’s patient only survived two more days. The copper engraving from 1820 shows the physician James Blundell. (Photo: wikipedia / public domain) In 1818 Blundell gave a lecture to the Medical-Surgical Society in London. He presented his results of animal experiments with regard to therapeutic effects and techniques.
He then carried out the blood transfusion at Guy’s Hospital in London on a seriously ill patient with gastric cancer. Since death occurred after two days, it could be assumed that the transferred blood was compatible with the AB0 blood groups that were not yet known at the time. In this case, the oxygen supply to the patient would have been increased by the supply of erythrocytes, i.e. red blood cells, and the desired success would have occurred.
It remains open, however, whether the death was transfusion-associated or related to the underlying disease. What is certain, however, is that Blundell carried out a successful blood transfusion in October 1825 on a woman who was bleeding badly and who subsequently recovered. What important milestones are there on the road to blood transfusion as we know it today? Two very important and fundamental discoveries were made that of the AB0 blood group system by Karl Landsteiner in 1901 and the use of sodium citrate by Richard Lewinsohn in 1915, who was able to prevent the blood from clotting. Blood no longer had to be transferred directly from the donor to the recipient.
With the invention of the triple roller pump by Alfred Beck, it became possible from 1924 to pump blood quickly and directly into the donor. The device was named “Beck’sche Mühle”. From 1933, their use formed the basis for the development of the blood donation system in Germany. In 1940, the Rhesus blood group system was discovered. In the same year Edwin Cohen succeeded in breaking down the blood plasma, i.e. the liquid part of the blood, into albumin, immunoglobulins and fibrinogen.
Donor blood is scarce worldwide. Do you dare to predict whether it will ever be possible to do without it because there are equivalent substitutes? At the moment I see no scientifically sound approach to producing artificial blood. No, unfortunately not. My vein conditions do not allow a withdrawal of 500 milliliters of whole blood.
However, I have an organ and tissue donation card. Jana Zeh spoke to Professor Axel Pruss. Source: ntv.de “Blood is also a very special juice in the immune response. (Photo: Kay Nietfeld / dpa / Symbolbild) The connection is already evident to Chinese researchers Norwegian and German scientists are now able to show it in a study. People with certain blood groups suffer more frequently from respiratory failure with Covid-19 disease.college biology essays writing service It has long been suspected that genetic factors could play a role in the immune defense against the coronavirus. A new one Study by Norwegian and German scientists now shows a connection between certain blood groups and the likelihood of respiratory failure during a coronavirus infection. The researchers around Tom Karlsen from Oslo University Hospital and Andre Franke from Kiel University were able to access blood samples from 1610 patients who were at the peak the epidemic in seven clinics in Spain and Italy were treated for severe Covid-19 disease; these patients’ DNA was extracted and examined in specific places where variants are common. The genetic traits found were then compared with those of 2205 healthy blood donors from both countries.
The scientists found that people with blood type A + have a higher risk of respiratory failure due to Covid-19. People with type 0 blood, on the other hand, were better protected against the virus. The results published in advance by the Norwegian and German scientists show that the variant “” rs657152 “” is 32 percent more common and the variant “” rs11385942 “” is 77 percent more common occurred in the Covid-19 patients than in the control group. “” Rs657152 “” is the variant that is located on chromosome 9q34 in the ABO gene, which determines the blood group properties. The researchers suggest that “” rs657152 “” has already been linked to increased interleukin-6 levels in overweight children.
The variant “” rs11385942 “” relates to the response to inflammation in the body. Chinese researchers had already noticed in previous studies that an above-average number of Covid-19 patients had blood group A. They also suspected a certain protective effect of blood group 0. In addition, it has been known for a long time that people with blood group 0 rarely get severe malaria. Blood group A, on the other hand, is more immune to the plague.In Germany, 37 percent of people have blood group A + and 35 percent have blood group 0+. Blood group B + occurs in nine percent of people in Germany, blood groups A- and 0- in six percent each. The rarest blood groups are AB + with four percent, B- with two percent and AB- with one percent. Source: ntv.de, sba “A husky shortly before the blood donation. (Photo: picture alliance / dpa) Pets have been around for thousands of years the side of man.
Over time, they have become family members and animal friends. If the darling suffers, a lot is done for him. But can blood be transferred to an animal in distress? Blood is often referred to as the juice of life. Rightly, because if there is too little of it in an organism, death threatens. This is not only the case with humans, but also with animals. “To save the life of dogs or cats, blood can also be transfused for them, but only within the same species,” explains Professor Barbara Kohn, who works in the Clinic for Small Pets at the Free University of Berlin.
Regardless of whether it is human or animal, every blood transfer is a liquid transplant that not only harbors opportunities, but also risks. For this reason, veterinarians, like physicians, always weigh up the benefits and risks before undertaking a blood transfusion. Since there is no nearly equivalent substitute for blood, blood from donors must be used, especially in emergencies. Such situations occur especially after accidents, serious injuries or serious illnesses. The Clinic for Small Pets at Freie Universität Berlin has a blood bank for such cases that holds a selection of donated blood. “” Dogs come in a number of different blood types.
However, we only test for a specific blood group and then transfer the same blood group, “” says the veterinarian from the practice. Dogs usually do not have serious side effects after receiving their first donation. “” Nevertheless, antibodies can develop in the recipient dog after the first blood donation. For this reason, a compatibility test, the so-called cross-match, is still done after the first donation. “” This way, complications can be largely excluded with a further donation. For blood transfer in cats, however, it is important to determine the blood group before the blood transfer and selects the donor blood accordingly. “” Cats have the AB blood group system “”, says the expert. This means that there are cats with blood group A, with blood group B and with blood group AB. “Sometimes, however, time is so pressing that you can only do a quick tolerance test before a blood transfer and then transfer the blood as a lifesaver,” says Kohn. In the clinic for small pets at the Free University of Berlin, around 250 transfusions performed on dogs and around 50 transfusions on cats.
But what is known as whole blood donation does not always occur. “” We also separate the blood like in human medicine, “says Kohn. “Depending on what the animal is missing, we give blood plasma, red blood cells or even whole blood,” explains Kohn. Every veterinarian can answer the question of whether your own pet meets the requirements to be a blood donor. By the way: Even if there is an accumulation of certain blood groups within certain dog breeds, a Great Dane could donate blood for a Dachshund. The other way around, however, would be difficult, as the donor dog should weigh at least 25 kilograms.
A dachshund of this weight, on the other hand, would not be considered a healthy dog and should therefore not donate blood. Source: ntv.de “The RKI initially advised against autopsies, but they are now an important tool in research into Covid-19. (Photo : picture alliance / dpa) Worldwide, over 175,000 people who were infected with the coronavirus have already died. By examining these dead, doctors are finding out more and more what Covid-19 does in the body. Experiences from Hamburg and Basel now show astonishing similarities.Dying Do people in the corona pandemic of Covid-19? Or do they just die with the disease? This question has been asked again and again since the virus began to spread worldwide.
Now, for the first time, autopsy results provide detailed information. NDR, WDR and “” Süddeutscher Zeitung “” include a report by Hamburg forensic doctor Klaus Püschel, which summarizes the results of 65 cases. Püschel had already said in an ntv interview at the beginning of April that in Hamburg only previously sick patients from Covid -19 died. In the current compilation, which includes patients between the 22nd
Püschel will be a little more precise: The patients autopsied in Hamburg were overweight, previously had a heart attack, high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, cancer or organ damage to the kidneys or liver. 46 autopsies had pre-existing lung disease.
28 had had other organ damage or transplanted organs. 10 of the autopsies had diabetes or were seriously overweight, 10 also had cancer, 16 suffered from dementia. According to Püschel, the number of Covid-19 victims autopsied in Hamburg has risen to over 100. Autopsy results from Switzerland point in the same direction.
Alexandar Tzankov, head of the autopsy at Basel University Hospital, told the newspapers that the people autopsied in Switzerland had all suffered from high blood pressure. A majority of the predominantly male patients were also clearly overweight. More than two-thirds of them had previous coronary arteries and one-third were diabetic, but Tzankov emphasized that 20 deaths could only be a sample. Nonetheless, the pathologist made a commitment: the deceased whom he autopsied would “” probably still be alive “” without the coronavirus. Because the previous illnesses shortened the lifespan, but “” all these patients would probably have lived longer without Covid-19, maybe an hour, maybe a day, a week or a whole year. “” The Swiss expert also suspects that he could explain the explanation could have found why many Covid 19 patients cannot be saved even with ventilation.
Surprisingly, very few of the 20 autopsied deaths in Basel died of pneumonia. “What we saw under the microscope was a serious disruption of the microcirculation in the lungs.” “That means that the oxygen exchange is no longer working. The given oxygen is simply no longer transported in the body. In a paper published last week in the journal “” Lancet “”, pathologists from the University of Zurich had already pointed out that the coronavirus not only attacks the lungs, but can also lead to serious vascular inflammation of various organs. Tzankov therefore emphasized knowledge about the “” Physiology of dying “” are important for the treatment of seriously ill corona patients. In Germany, around 5000 people have died from or with the disease so far.
Until recently, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) advised against autopsying Covid-19 deaths. The reason was that the risk for doctors was too great to possibly infect themselves. At the press conference on Tuesday, RKI Deputy Chief Lars Schaade said: “” Especially when the disease is new, it is important to autopsy as much as possible. “” Forensic doctors had been pushing for this for a long time. Since mid-April, Covid-19 autopsy results have been collected in a register at RWTH Aachen University in order to evaluate findings centrally. Source: ntv.de “Radiologists can see the lung damage in both X-ray and CT images. (Photo: REUTERS ) Covid-19 is still an unexplored disease. Anything is possible between an easy course and death.
It is now becoming clear that healing is also special. Because people who feel good again after an infection may be marked forever. The new coronavirus triggers the Covid-19 disease, which can be fatal but also almost unnoticed.
In recovering patients, however, Austrian doctors have now discovered that the disease may have serious long-term effects even after a mild course. The senior physician at Innsbruck University Hospital, Frank Hartig, reports in the diving magazine “” Wetnotes “” that he has found “” irreversible lung damage “” in some of his patients. The diving doctor usually examines people for their suitability for diving, but now heads the emergency department and is the responsible crisis coordinator for Covid 19 patients. Among the less severe cases who recovered from home quarantine during this period were six active divers.
According to Hartig, these people were only slightly ill, they only had individual symptoms such as a dry cough or reduced performance. Their illnesses had been five to six weeks ago, and when they were checked they were considered clinically healthy. In the computed tomography of the lungs, however, the organs looked anything but healthy. “” They didn’t get any better in imaging, “” Hartig reported to Italian broadcaster Rai. “As an emergency physician with 20 years of experience, you swallow when you see something like this in a 40-year-old patient.” “Two of his patients experienced a significant lack of oxygen during exercise. Two more showed “” very excitable bronchial tubes as in an asthmatic “”.
In four of the six patients, clear changes in the tissue were still visible on the control CT.